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    Tcy wcrc built on hilltops and cncloscd with carthcn walls, so in timcs ol war thcy scrvcd also as salc havcns or refugia lor thc inhabit ants ol ncarby villagcs.

    As wc movc lrom thc cast towards thc wcst, thc widcsprcad toponymy ol Tracian origin is gradually rcplaccd by thc toponymy ol ardanian and!

    Somc namcs, such as thosc ol thc towns Nais- sus and Scupi, prcscrvcd thcir Ccltic roots. Gradual Romanization, involving thc planncd scttlcmcnt ol Roman citizcns, rcsultcd in thc lormation ol urban ccntrcs with limitcd scllgovcrn mcnt in ccrtain arcas ol ardania.

    Altcr thc Roman conqucst, duc to mili tary, cconomic and administrativc rcasons, thc original prcRoman refugia 6 Plin. Howcvcr, cvcn il this inscription was dcdicatcd to ardania, it docs not ncccssarily mcan that Kamcnica ncar Kragujcvac was in arda nia.

    Tc inhabitants ol towns wcrc morc cxposcd to thc proccss ol Romaniza tion than thc rural population, as a rulc morc conscrvativc and rcluctant to adopt a ncw culturc.

    Tc ncwlylormcd urban ccntrcs wcrc sourccs lrom which Roman inucncc and culturc sprcad among thc local population, morcovcr, thcy wcrc also thc military, cconomic, administrativc and rcli gious ccntrcs ol cntirc rcgions.

    Tc rcasons lor an carly Romanization ol thc ardanian arcas lic abovc all in thc Roman mpircs incrcasing nccds lor orcs containing silvcr, gold, zinc, coppcr and lcad, ncccssary lor maintaining thc cmpircs monctary stability.

    Tcrclorc, thc arcas rich in orcs, such as thc slopcs ol Stara Planina, Svrljig and Kopaonik, wcrc organizcd into mining rcgions and impcrial do mains.

    Tcn thc ccntrcs likc Municipium Dardanorum at thc conucncc ol thc Soanika and! Howcvcr, thc largcst num bcr ol scttlcmcnts was cstablishcd along thc roads, both main and local.

    Howcvcr, it is quitc probablc that thc Roman roads lollowcd thc coursc ol carlicr, prcRoman, roads, and that in that scnsc thc Roman conqucst ol thc ardani arcas brought no discontinuity.

    Tc oldcst Roman roads conncctcd Stobi 6 with Scupi in thc south ol ardania, and thcn with thc Morava rivcr vallcy and northwards to thc anubc, whcrc thc army was translcrrcd.

    R, K, Naissus,. For thc tcrritory ol Roman ardania thc lol lowing itincrarics arc ol importancc: Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum, 6.

    Tc grcat antiquity ol ardanian roads is also supportcd by thc abscncc lrom thc itincrarics ol somc important towns, such as Municipium Dardanorum 6 and Ulpiana in wcst ardania.

    Namcly, upon ardanias incorporation into thc m pirc, thcrc lollowcd a last dcvclopmcnt ol various cconomic activitics, abovc all thc intcnsc cxploitation ol mincral raw matcrials.

    Sincc ccrtain rc gions rich in natural rcsourccs wcrc oltcn lar away lrom thc originally built communication lincs, vcry soon an cntirc nctwork ol local roads dcvclopcd lor thc purposc ol transporting orcs and othcr raw matcrials.

    Although thc Romans rcgularly maintaincd thc roads, it sccms quitc rcasonablc to assumc that in particular hcavy loads wcrc transportcd in oth cr, chcapcr ways.

    For highly practical rcasons transportation by watcrways would havc bccn uscd whcncvcr possiblc, cs pccially sincc it is known that in antiquity, duc to a morc humid climatc and dcnsc lorcsts, many rivcrs, cvcn smallcr oncs, wcrc navigablc.

    According to Strabo, thc rivcr rim was navigablc lrom its mouth upstrcam to arda nia, 66 and thc rivcr Niava was also navigablc in onc scction, according to thc inscription ol a rccruit ol thc rivcr classis ol lcgion!

    II Claudia lrom Nais- sus. Tis can bc supportcd by thc nd ol a sct ol lcad ingots lrom Caesarea in modcrn! II Claudia scrvcd as Disce n s epibeta in thc rivcr classis, according to thc inscription lrom thc lortrcss ol Ni, cl.

    Tc othcr stampcd inscription, ol intcrcst to our issuc, rcads: Met alli Dard anici , indicating thc ardanian origin ol thc prccious shipmcnt.

    Unlortunatcly, thc traccs ol Roman roads in thc arca ol ardania arc illprcscrvcd in our timcs. Tc rcason lor that lics in thc lact that thcy wcrc lor thc most part ovcrlaid by latcr, mcdicval and modcrn roads, and also that thc vcry conguration ol thc tcrrain has bccn unlavourablc lor thc prcscr vation ol visiblc traccs.

    Vhcn thc Romans appcarcd on thc historical stagc ol ardania, thcy did not intcrlcrc much into thc straticd and stablc social structurc and hi crarchy ol thc ncwlyconqucrcd arcas.

    Howcvcr, thc lact that, in contrast with Scupi and Naissus, somc important towns, such as Ulpiana and Municipium Dardanorum, do not occur in thc itincrarics, suggcsts thc antiquity ol ardanian scttlcmcnts and communications.

    Pre-Roman phase charactcrizcd by. Tc road nctwork was dc tcrmincd by thc natural lcaturcs ol thc tcrrain and thc human nccd lor movcmcnt and tradc.

    Early Roman phase markcd by thc risc ol thc rst urban ccn trcs ol largcr arcas. Communication lincs mostly lollowcd thc wcllprovcn courscs ol prcRoman roads, and such roads wcrc uscd mostly by armics and logistic support to thc troops on thc Limes rst ccntury A..

    Developed Roman phase lrom as carly as thc sccond and third ccnturics A.. Tc main roads in ardania assumcd a prcdominantly commcrcial and cconomic charactcr.

    Such loads attractcd robbcrs, latrones, making military prcscncc in thc stations along thc roads ncccssary, cvcn altcr thc rm bordcr ol thc Limes was cstablishcd.

    Hopclully thc assumption proposcd hcrc will nd lurthcr scholarly cor roboration in thc timcs to comc.

    Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian cademy of Sciences and rts Belgrade Abbreviations Sources! Iuniani Iustini Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum iodor.

    Diodorus Siculus Fcst. Festi bre. Iuli Caesaris Commentariorum de bello ci. Notitia Dignitatum Plin. Naturalis historia Ptol. Ptolemaei geographia Strab.

    Strabonis geographia Liv. Titi Li. L Corpus inscriptiorum Latinarum Patsch, Beitrage C. Patsch, Beitrage. R, K, Naissus Tabula Imperii Fomani, NaissusDyrrachionScupiSerdica Tessalonice.

    R, L, Aquincum Tabula Imperii Fomani,quincumSarmi. Skopjc Bibliography Cviji, J. Balkansko poluostr. Municipium D. Fimljani na Koso.

    Aspccts ol Roman Mining in Noricum, Pannonia, almatia and Mocsia Supcrior, NF! Mountcd Cohorts in Mocsia Supcrior, kten des XI Internationalen Limeskongresses 8udapcst , A Military iploma ol A..

    Kovanjc novca u rudnikim distriktima rimskog! Tc Mincrs Cults in! Army and Mining in Mocsia Supcrior. Stuttgart, 6. Roman mining in! Cividalc dcl Friuli, ::o.

    Inscriptions de la Mesie Superieure, vol. Fidanovski, S. Rimski i ranovizantijski pcriod. Kcramiticv, A. Novi cpigralski spomcnici od! Mirkovi, M.

    Fimski grado. Singidunum ct lc nordoucst dc la provincc. Mcsy, A. Latroncs ardaniac, cta ntiqua cademiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, T. Papazoglu, F.

    Srednjobalkanska plemena u predrimsko doba: Tribali, utarijati, Dardanci, Skordisci i Me. Sarajcvo: Ccntar za balkanoloka ispitivanja.

    Antika Ulpijana prcma dosadanjim istraivanjima, Stari- nar XXX!! Patsch, C. Festschrift fur Otto Benndorf. Geburtstage ge. Pctrovi, P.

    Ni u antiko doba. Medijana re. Saccrdos ol Jupitcr olichcnus lrom an! Unc inscription romainc tardivc pacnnc dc Rcmcsiana Provincc dc acia Mcditcrranca , Federation internationale des associations detudes classiques!

    Athncs, Pilipovi, S. Symc, R. Danubian Papers. Tasi, N. Gvozdcno doba. Kumanovo , Uc Porckc rckc. Antiki spomcnici nac zcmljc, Spomenik LXX!

    Nekoliko pitanja i. Tc rclicl draws most ol its signicancc lrom thc thcmc, inlrcqucntly shown in thc luncrary stclac ol thc 8alkan and othcr provinccs ol thc mpirc.

    Although thc rclicl has bccn prcscrvcd only as a lragmcnt, it is obvious that thc monumcnt was claboratc in tcrms ol iconography and a piccc ol nc craltsmanship.

    Tis is a sucicnt rcason to prcscnt thc rclicl and makc an attcmpt to placc it in a rclcvant contcxt. Furthcrmorc, it appcars important to cxaminc thc inscription discovcrcd along with this rclicl, and to invcstigatc thc possibility ol thcir bcing lragmcnts ol a singlc luncrary monumcnt.

    Today: For a long timc propcrty ol Kosta Markovi, who madc a gilt ol both thc rclicl and thc inscription to thc Archacological Socicty, it was kcpt in Vcicrt Collcction, today in thc National Muscum, 8clgradc,!

    Abovc thc rclicl thc rcmnant ol a at cld with thc basc ol a scmicolumn is obscrvablc. Most probably it was thc inscription cld ankcd by scmicolumns.

    Howcvcr, in his rst rclcrcncc to this monumcnt F. Tc lclt sidc shows a crcncllatcd round towcr ol drcsscd stonc blocks with a gatc in its lowcr lclt part.

    To thc right ol thc towcr is thc biga in which Achillcs stands, and to which Hcctors lcgs arc bound. Hcctors nakcd body lics lilclcss on thc ground, with his hair rucd, his right arm closc to thc body, and thc lclt abovc thc hcad.

    Achillcs is armourcd and has a hclmct with a plumc ol lcathcrs, his lclt loot is on thc biga, and thc right onc rcsts on Hcctors bclly.

    Hc holds thc rcins ol his horsc and a round shicld in his lclt hand, and thc right onc is raiscd to thc sidc, but thc rclicl bcing damagcd, it is impossiblc to say whcthcr hc is holding somcthing in it.

    At thc timc Kalinka and Swoboda saw thc rclicl thc objcct was rccognizably a whip. Lcttcrs and can bc sccn on thc top lclt sidc abovc thc towcr, and on thc top right sidc, abovc thc horscs hcads, arc thc lcttcrs , , and.

    Cyrillic lcttcrs wcrc most probably inscribcd at a latcr datc. Iucu n do,-dae? Gaianus l ius ] c h ic s itus e st. Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art : 8ibliography: CIL!!!

    Achillcs, thc grcat hcro ol thc Trojan Var, was onc ol thc most important gurcs in Roman luncrary art. Achillcs cyclc compriscd, among othcrs, thc lollowing compositions: immcrsing ol child Achillcs in thc Styx, Achil lcs cducation with Chciron, his bcing lound on Skyros among Lycomcdcs daughtcrs, killing ol Pcnthcsilcia, his cncountcr with Priam.

    Tc rcprcscn tation ol Achillcs dragging Hcctors body is just onc ol thc sccncs making up thc vast Achillcs cyclc, but also thc crucial momcnt ol thc Trojan Cyclc, dcpictcd in morc dctail on sarcophagi than on luncrary stclac.

    Sarcophagi usually showcd thc cyclc, or a largcr numbcr ol sccncs with thc mythologi cal thcmc. Tc artistic rcprcscntations ol thc myth ol Achillcs and Hcctor on lu ncrary stclac show littlc dicrcncc.

    Achillcs usually stands in a biga, trailing thc victim on thc ground bchind him. Comparcd to thc basic typc, thc rclicl lrom Pincum is cnrichcd with a round towcr on thc lclt.

    Tis iconographic dctail makcs it obvious that thc Pincum rclicl. Tis myth is dcpictcd on numcrous Attica sarcophagi.

    Tc lragmcnt ol a sarcophagus lrom almatia, lrom an unknown sitc, bcars sccncs ol this myth in an unusual, right to lclt, scqucncc.

    Usually thc right sidc ol thc composition shows Priam knccling and plcading with Achillcs lor his sons body, bchind him arc scrvants untying thc horscs ol Achillcs biga to which Hcctors body is bound, Automcdon as thc chariotccr, and at thc cnd thcrc is thc wagon with Priams ransom, Automcdon, most probably undcr Achillcs ordcrs, draggcd thc body ol Hcctor around Patroclus gravc, and nally, thc unbinding ol Hcc tors body to givc it his lathcr LIMC!

    Achillcus, no. All thcsc thcmcs, rcgardlcss ol thcir cclccticism, symbolizcd thc union ol thc dc ccascd with thc divinc world, and showcd that mortals could carn ctcrnal lilc by thcir virtucs, cspccially hcroic virtucs.

    Tc dccision rcachcd on Skyros bcgins to bc brought to lul lmcnt at thc momcnt ol Achillcs killing Hcctor, and that is why thcsc two 8 According to Homcr, Achillcs wcnt round thc city walls thrcc timcs, dragging Hcc tors body bound with thc bclt givcn to Hcctor by Ajax Il.

    Tus, thc myth about Mclcagcr cxprcsscs symbolism through thc. Tctis kncw that Achillcs would not rcturn lrom thc battlc, bccausc dcstiny mcant lor him to makc thc dccision hc madc, so shc hid him on Skyros, whcrc Achillcs rcachcd his dccision.

    Tc importancc ol this dccision is strcsscd by thc lact that, by Tctis ordcrs, Achillcs was lollowcd cvcrywhcrc by thc scrvant Mncmon who was supposcd to kccp rcminding him that should hc cvcr kill a son ol Apollos, hc would dic at Apollos hands.

    Ancicnt writcrs say that Achillcs killcd Mncmon bccausc hc lailcd to rcmind him ol Tctis words in good timc, and also claim that hc argucd with Agamcmnon thrcc timcs, blaming him lor calling him to war only subscqucntly Plut.

    Pilipovi, Hcroic Tcmcs ol thc Trojan Cyclc in Roman Funcrary Art : compositions may bc sccn as thc dccision and its practical rcalization, which is shown in thc rclicl lrom Pincum.

    Accordingly, thc rcason lor this thcmc, and thc onc lrom Pincum, to bc choscn lor thc dccoration ol luncrary mon umcnts should bc sought in thc idca ol Imitatio chillis.

    Tc dcccascd carns union ol his soul with thc divinc world by his virtuc, cspccially his valour. Tc motivc bchind this choicc, according to Plato, is Achillcs lovc lor Patroclus.

    Tus undcrstood, Achillcs dragging Hcctors body bccomcs an cxprcssion ol lovc rcwardcd by thc gods. Tis act is, howcvcr, thc cxprcssion ol both lovc and valour.

    According to somc writcrs, it was morc than just lricndship, in lact, thcy arc sccn as lovcrs. Tat is why this hcroic thcmc ol thc Trojan Cyclc may bc also undcrstood as an indircct cxprcssion ol lovc.

    Howcvcr, thc rcasons lor Achillcs hcroic advcnturc apart, this thcmc lrom thc Trojan Cyclc lully cxprcsscs this luncrary symbolism as thc most illustrious cxamplc ol.

    Altcr considcring basic iconographic and symbolic charactcristics ol thc rclicl lrom Pincum, it is important to look at thc cxisting artistic analo gics or othcr instanccs ol this thcmc in luncrary art.

    Achillcs and Hcctor wcrc not oltcn rcprcscntcd in thc luncrary stclac, and not only in thc arca ol Uppcr Mocsia whcrc this rclicl, as lar as is known, is thc uniquc cxamplc.

    Tc action unlolds lrom right to lclt. Achillcs, na kcd, with a capc ovcr his shouldcr and a spcar in his right hand, is standing in a biga.

    Hcctors nakcd body lics lilclcssly on thc ground with his lclt arm abovc his hcad. Achillcs body is turncd to thc lclt, and his hcad in thc othcr dircction.

    Hc is looking at his lcllow warrior, a nakcd gurc with a capc ovcr thc shouldcr standing on a rock abovc Hcctors body at thc lar right cnd ol thc composition.

    Tis lcllow warrior ol Achillcs, most probably Patroclus, holds a largc shicld in his lclt hand, whilc his right hand is dam agcd and it cannot bc sccn whcthcr hc uscd to hold any objcct.

    Hcras ordcrs, must divc into thc torrcnts ol thc ccanus and sct Il. Tis rclicl is thc closcst analogy to thc rclicl lrom Pincum, but it docs not show thc towcr dcpictcd in thc Uppcr Mocsian cxamplc.

    Tc othcr rclicl lrom! At thc lclt cnd ol thc rclicl is Andromachc, holding hcr hair with both hands.

    Priams plcading with Achillcs lor thc body ol his son Hcctor was anothcr rarcly dcpictcd sccnc in luncrary art. Jovanovi with rclcrcncc to thc issuc ol its authcnticity.

    Priam is shown knccling and kissing thc outstrctchcd hand ol Achillcs. Achillcs is at tablc and intcrrupts his mcal, and bcsidc thc tablc thcrc arc two hcrocs, most likcly Automcdon, Achillcs chariotccr, and Al cimus lrom thc Iliad.

    Priams lcllow warriors arc bchind him, at thc lar lclt cnd ol thc composition. II CL. Tc rclicl lrom Aquincum shows Priam with a Phrygian cap knccling bclorc Achillcs.

    Tc choscn thcmc lrom thc Trojan Var would bc a mcta phor lor thc victory ovcr thc cncmy, but also lor thc hardwon Grcck accord. Abovc thcm arc thc lragmcnts ol thrcc horsc hcads, onc abovc thc othcr.

    Tcy strctch thcir right arms towards cach othcr. Mcnclaus hcad is almost complctcly dcstroycd. Open your vertical and smile.

    Lunn R. Should TMD be it woman's issue? Cediiorial IR. Lunn tt Cranio, Lyons K. Z- Dent J. Maintone D. T- Reder.

    Gregory II Cell Immunol, Marbach i J. Dent Assoc. Marcus H. S Marcus II British Medical Bulletin. Marfan syndrome. Abraham, A. Vitto It Am.

    Invest Martin R. Kraniometnsche Technik t R, Martin, A, Kraniologie tt Lchrtouch dcr Anthropologic in systcmatischer Daretcllung.

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    Kurklu, G. Ak, S, Ozturk, M- Koray, S. Palanduz tt Cranio. McCollum T. TOMAC: an orthognathic treatment planning system. Pan 3.

    McCollum tt h Clin. Morram D. Taylor ff Br. Morris R. Morrow D, Relationship of other ioint problems and anterior disc position in symptomatic TMD patients and in asymptomatic volunteers AD f D.

    Mocor-vehicle accidents and TMDS. Burqess, D, A- tColbinsoo, P. Muller F Maximum bite force after the replacement of complete dentures IF. Nafcai II.

    Oral Implantol. A, Nangia, M A. Nash R- W. Nush It Compend. Contin Educ. Nie Q. Nunn N. The effect of occlusal discrepancies on periodontitis.

    II, Relationship of occlusal treatment to the progression of periodontal disease N, E. Occlusal considerations in periodontics t S J.

    M Gray. G J, Linden, J. A- James t Br. S; I9t I I. Ogawa T. Different responses of masticatory movements after alteration of occlusal guidance related to individual movement pattern!

    Ogawa, M. Ogawa, K. Ogawa, T Ogimoto, K. Koyano tt J. Oral Rchabil. Ohura K. Experimental periodontitis in rats t K. Otiuia, M. Shinohora H Nippon-Vflkurigaki-Tasahi Orbach S- Mcniscal disorders.

    State Dent J. Orthodontics and temporomandibular joint internal derangement I R. P, L- Westeraon. Drake It Am. J, Orthod. Qsbom J. Biomechanical imp I teat ions of lateral pteriqoid contribution trihria and opening in humans 1J.

    Osbom II Affih. Pemni F. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction and systemic joint laxity IF. Peyron A, Effects of increased hardness on jaw movement and muscle activity during chewing of visco-efastie model foods 1 A.

    C, Las-sauzay, A. Woda tt Exp. Brain Res. Pfaffenrath V. PfafTenraih, W. D, Gerber. Stuttgart, Berlin, Coin.

    Pinto N Vertical facial pattern end orthodontic stability. Pinto, M. Woods, E, Crawford I Aust. Pitcl M. Plata-Salaman C.

    Biofeehav, Rev. Ferrcira, A. Barrcira, C. Prosehel, J. Raine C. The Dale E. Raustia A. Raustia, P. M Pirttinicim, J.

    Macintosh, R. Heart- J. Rout D. Syringo-hydromyclia; Surgical experience with 85 cases ID. Vita S.

    Epistola ad Smyrneos. Ambiguorem lib. De opif. De parad. De Gen. De civ. XXVI in 1Ep. De sacerd. De virg. Ludloff J. London, New—York, ; Howson J.

    Deaconesses or the Official Help of Women in Parochial Work and in Charitable Institutions. London, Die weibliche Diakonie in ihrem ganzen Umfang dargestellt.

    Potsdam, Achelis H. Herzog, A. Leipzig, Thus, summarized in a brief statement, fission energy was released as a result of purely scientific research carried out in order to investigate the atom and find the microscopic structure of our world.

    The progress towards thermonuclear energy is connected with astrophysics, the study of the macroscopic structure of our world. There are at present a number of big projects aiming at the production of the necessary conditions for the release of thermonuclear energy.

    They are, of course, very important because they have directed interest towards the field and demonstrated its difficulties.

    But I think that of equal importance is an advance on a very broad front in magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics, and I believe that this may lead to a great number of new projects.

    The field is rich in new possibilities, and we cannot be sure that any of the present lines of approach will lead to the best solution.

    Capture of a Plasma by a Magnetic Field. As an example of what I mean I shall discuss one of the basic principles in the field. In order to make a thermonuclear reactor it is essential to keep heated gas enclosed during a certain time.

    The first question which should be decided is whether we should a confine the gas at first and then heat it, b heat it at first and then confine it, or c heat and confine it at the same time.

    Most thermonuclear projects seem to have chosen the first or, in some cases, the third alternative, in spite of the fact that from a technological point of view it may be an advantage to heat the plasma at first and then shoot it into a region of confinement where it will be used.

    Let us discuss whether this could be an alternative to the present projects. This would be the case, for example, if we could shoot a heated plasma into a magnetic field in such a way that it is captured by the magnetic field.

    It has been argued that this is very difficult, if not impossible. A charged particle which is shot into a magneticfieldfrom outside usually comes out of it again.

    Also, if we consider magnetic lines of force which are " frozen " into a plasma, we are tempted to conclude that the plasma could not be brought into a magnetic field from outside and captured by it.

    I think that we could learn from astrophysics that these objections are not watertight; for example, we can see what happens during magnetic storms and aurorae.

    This rather indicates that a magnetized plasma could be shot into and captured by the magnetic field. Certainly there are several conflicting theories about magnetic storms and aurorae but I think it is now fairly evident that a magnetic storm is caused by an extremely hot plasma which occupies parts of the geomagnetic field and is held captured by it during a considerable time.

    Hence, from a study of these phenomena, we could conclude that in principle it is possible to shoot a heated plasma into a magnetic field and capture it there.

    This might be checked by laboratory experiments in which we simulate the geophysical phenomena. However, there may also be other and simpler methods for achieving the same results.

    A possible method of capturing a plasma which is shot into a magnetic field is illustrated by Fig. An electric field is applied between the cylindrical electrodes A and and a magnetized plasma ring is produced which drifts in the axial direction due to the action of the electric and magnetic fields.

    In a region NS, a radial magnetic field is produced between a magnetic pole S inside the inner electrode and an annular pole N outside the outer electrode.

    If the plasma ring has a sufficiently high conductivity and density it may carry the magnetic lines of force with itself as illustrated by Fig.

    When the ring proceeds further the lines of force will disrupt so that we obtain a configuration as shown in Fig. The original field between the electrodes is almost restored and a magnetized plasma ring is produced.

    The ring is characterized by a longitudinal magnetic field which is wrapped up infieldlines passing the hole of the ring. This structure is rather different from Bostick's plasmoids, but is similar to the field configuration in Zeta.

    The temperature of the plasma ring is a function of the kinetic and thermal energy of the initial plasma and of the strength of the radial magnetic field.

    The dependence is rather complicated. Theoretical and Experimental Magnetohydrodynamics at Stockholm. Finally, I should mention, as an example of the different possibilities which there might be in this field, the theoretical and experimental work which is done in Stockholm.

    As will be reported later by Professors Ohlin and Siegbahn, interesting investigations in this field are also going on in Uppsala.

    During the last decade the magnetohydrodynamic research in Stockholm has consisted of a series of theoretical and experimental investigations.

    The experiments have been carried out in conducting liquids, mercury or liquid sodium, which are placed in strong magnetic fields.

    But, of course, experimental investigations of hot plasmas seem to be an even more fascinating field. Following a long series of investigations of relatively cool plasmas, presented by Dr.

    Lehnert at this Conference, we have now started a series of experimental investigations on hot plasmas, concentrating on the fundamental properties of the plasma.

    We are also trying to analyze in a more or less systematic manner possible new ways of approach to the thermonuclear problem.

    As an example I should like to mention the theoretical and experimental investigations by Dr. Lehnert about whether a plasma could.

    At first one would say " Yes, of course ", but, on second thoughts, one would say " No, not at all, because the leads to the loop will disturb the conditions " ; but I think it has been demonstrated that there is a fair chance that the eect of these leads to the loop can be eliminated by the magneticfieldsof the leads themselves.

    We have also started experiments with discharges of a few hundred kiloamps to produce fast-moving magnetized plasmas,. Our investigations also cover other problems in magnetohydrodynamics with possible applications both to astrophysics and to the thermonuclear problem.

    We have chosen this line of research because we believe that the way to solve the thermonuclear problem should be by an advance on a broad front in magnetohydrodynamics, plasma physics and astrophysics.

    Research on Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions n the USSR By L. The idea of developing controlled thermonuclear reactions for power generation by utilizing the synthesis of light atomic nuclei has been expressed time and again in the past.

    But it is only after many years of preparatory work, the results of which were not tangible earlier, that justified hopes have arisen as to the possibility of finding a successful solution to this problem.

    A rapid expansion of the scale of research followed, and now the development of ways of attaining controlled thermonuclear reactions has become the most important problem of atomic engineering.

    The trend towards a lessening of the rigid bounds of secrecy that had earlier so fully isolated physicists working on this problem in the different countries from one another was important in speeding up scientific investigation.

    As long as the dominant doctrine in this field was that the danger of publishing one's scientific results cannot be balanced by the advantage to be gained through scientific information from abroad, research languished.

    A significant change occurred in , when certain results of work done in the USSR were disclosed for the first time. This was followed by the gradual emergence of publications from England and the USA.

    It was then possible to begin some sort of an exchange of ideas and experiencea thing of incalculable value in attacking such a scientific and technical enigma as is the problem of controlled thermonuclear reactions.

    In spite of the wide range of the investigations for controlled thermonuclear reactions, all of them are still in the stage of exploring various approaches to the problem.

    Not a single one of these approaches has been explored to such an extent as to permit one to say that success is assured. Apparently there is only one conviction that seems to be generally accepted, and that is that the solution of the problem must follow from a correct choice of the technique of magnetic confinement thermoinsulation for practical realization of the general idea of confining hot plasma by strong magnetic fields.

    Methods of utilizing a magnetic field for the purpose of thermoinsulation and heating of plasmas may be divided into two basic groups.

    One group includes methods of accelerating the plasma by electrodynamic forces; the other, methods of obtaining equilibrium plasma configurations, that is, states in which, the pressure of the plasma is balanced by magnetic pressure.

    The difference between these two groups of methods becomes more distinct if we express it in terms of magnetohydrodynamics, which deals with the general laws of behavior of a conducting fluid in a magnetic field.

    Under certain conditions which we shall assume fulfilled, the plasma may be regarded as analogous to a conducting fluid, macroscopically speaking.

    The equation describing the behavior of a plasma under the action of electrodynamic forces is 1 where v and p are respectively the velocity and density of an elementary volume of plasma moving under the action of electrodynamic forces and a pressure difference.

    The electrodynamic force acting on a unit volume of plasma is represented by the first term on the right-hand side of the equation.

    It is due to the interaction between the magnetic eld and the currents flowing in the plasma H is field strength and j is current density.

    A glance at this equation is sufficient to see that two extreme cases are possible, each characterizing a large group of confinement methods.

    If the gas kinetic pressure is relatively small, the electrodynamic force will be balanced by " inertial forces" : dv 1 Under these conditions, the plasma as a whole will acquire under the action of electrodynamic forces a directed velocity which may considerably exceed the random thermal velocity of the ions.

    The kinetic energy of directed motion due to acceleration of the plasma in the magnetic field may then be utilized for subsequent heating of the substance in processes.

    RESEARCH IN THE USSR of the implosive compression type, during impact of accelerated plasmoids on a target, etc.

    Some concrete techniques of such utilization will be described below. Characteristic of this type of plasma-magnetic field interaction is the short duration of the process.

    Obviously, such momentary pulsed processes will be of considerable interest only if it is possible to utilize them as the first phase in heating the plasma.

    This phase should result in the transformation of kinetic energy into heat and in the transition to some quasi-stationary state in which the rapid inertial motions remaining after the first phase should damp out within a very short time.

    An opposite case will occur if acceleration of the plasma is small and if the " inertial term " on the left-hand side of the equation may be disregarded compared with the pressure gradient.

    One may imagine a multiplicity of ways for attaining such equilibrium plasma configurations characterizing a quasi-stationary state of plasma in a magnetic field.

    At present the following trends appear to be emerging in more or less clear outline: a Development of methods for confinement and heating of plasma in systems with large closed discharge currents which are maintained by an external voltage and stabilized by an external magnetic field; b Research into magnetic traps in which a hightemperature plasma is produced by accumulation of fast particles injected into the trap.

    This classification of different approaches to the problem of obtaining and maintaining high temperatures in plasmas is of course very incomplete, but within the scope of this paper it is quite natural, since it corresponds to the principal directions of research on controlled thermonuclear reactions in the USSR.

    Before describing some concrete results obtained in the theoretical and experimental studies carried out along the lines mentioned above, I should like to touch on some questions relating to the general properties of future thermonuclear reactors.

    Of course I fully realize that at the present stage of our knowledge any discussion of such questions can only rest on our faith in the ultimate triumph of human ingenuity.

    First it is necessary to note that, irrespective of which concrete variant of magnetic system is proposed as a technical solution of the thermonuclear energy problem, the system must satisfy one fundamental condition: the energy released in nuclear fusion must cover by a wide margin the energy.

    In this formula, H is the intensity of the plasmaconfining magnetic field and is the time the high temperature is maintained in the plasma.

    The quantity 7] denotes that fraction of the thermal energy of the plasma which is converted into electrical energy at the end of the operation cycle.

    The constant A depends on the nuclear fuel selected. Under the most optimistic assumptions concerning the character of the processes occurring in a thermonuclear generator, this constant may be taken as equal to for pure deuterium and for a mixture of D and T in equal proportion.

    These values of the constant are based on the supposition that thermonuclear reactions in the plasma proceed at an " optimum " temperature, which for deuterium amounts to 50 kev 5 X K and for the D-T mixture to 15 kev 1.

    When applying the inequality 2 with the indicated values of the constant A one must bear in mind that strictly speaking it refers to the ideal case, where there is no escape of particles from the plasma in the high-temperature regime.

    This implies that the particle lifetime coincides with the time the high temperature is maintained in the plasma. From condition 2 it follows that the shorter the time interval during which a high temperature is maintained, the higher the intensity of the magnetic field must be.

    In order to satisfy these requirements by means of present-day electrical facilities, one must have some method for confinement of the fast particles of the plasma during periods of time of the order of seconds or even tens of seconds.

    To illustrate, if T is put equal to 10 seconds then the field strength in a generator with pure deuterium must be of the order of 30, gauss.

    This value is within limits technically feasible for stationary apparatus. However, it should be pointed out that in this case the power released per unit volume of the generator would be small, and for such a complex machine to be workable it would have to be of an enormous size.

    We shall now examine the problem of direct conversion of thermonuclear energy into electric power. The energy released in a fusion reaction consists of two different parts that play quite unequal roles in the operation of a thermonuclear generator.

    The energy carried away by neutrons produces no effect on the processes occurring in a plasma. In the balance of electric energy produced by a generator, this part can participate with an efficiency that does not exceed 0.

    The other part of the nuclear fusion energy is related to the charged particles produced in the high-energy reaction; it is. The possibility of a transformation of this nature stems from the fact that during magnetic thermoinsulation the high-temperature nuclear fuel is surrounded by a strong magnetic field which is similar to an elastic shell compressing the plasma.

    Upon expansion a plasma heated to a high temperature does work against the magnetic pressure at the expense of thermal energy which is thus converted into electromagnetic energy.

    If the maximum temperature of the plasma at the onset of expansion is equal to T and the minimum temperature to which the plasma cools at the end of each work cycle of the thermonuclear generator is T2, the maximum value of 7] will be given by the familiar formula.

    In most methods of exciting controlled thermonuclear reactions the energy source is either deuterium or a mixture of deuterium and tritium.

    Of these two types of nuclear fuel, the future will, apparently, belong to the D-T mixture. Its chief merit is the large value of the reaction cross section.

    In the temperature interval of practical interest the yield of a mixture with equal parts of D and T exceeds that of pure D by two orders of magnitude.

    Though the tritium obtained from conventional atomic reactors is at present a very expensive nuclear fuel, this can only be a temporary barrier to its use, for there exist methods that can easily compensate the tritium used up in a thermonuclear generator.

    In each elementary D-T reaction event, a nucleus of tritium disappears and a fast If a thermonuclear generator is surrounded with a sufficiently thick layer of a substance in which fast neutrons induce n, 2n reactions, it should be possible to increase substantially the initial neutron From the foregoing it follows that at least in flux.

    For neutron multiplication via n, 2n reprinciple it is possible to make 7] very close to unity, actions we may use either beryllium or such heavy inasmuch as the upper temperature in the thermal elements as lead or bismuth.

    If any one of these substances is considerable reduction of the temperature during used as the shell of the thermonuclear reactor the expansion can be accomplished only at the expense of number of neutrons should increase roughly 1.

    In the case 2-fold. This enhanced neutron flux may be utilized of adiabatic expansion, the temperature is inversely for breeding tritium by disintegration of Li6.

    An 2JZ proportional to V , where V is the plasma volume. This implies that, during the period of time exceed 1. Therefore, as long as there is no chamber in the thermonuclear generator, the redanger that the accessible supplies of Li 6 on the maining volume being filled solely by the strong earth will be exhausted, thermonuclear reactors can magnetic field.

    Since only a small part of the genebe operated on a D-T mixture with regeneration of rator volume is utilized at 73 close to unity, some tritium.

    To this we may add that even if for some compromise value of 7 , probably not exceeding 0. Moreover, the thermal USSR.

    Our attention will be directed chiefly to the conditions in the system are also more favorable results of recent work that have not yet been extensince the thermal load on the plasma chamber walls sively discussed.

    I shall present the material in is lower. This can In studies of pulsed processes of short duration, readily be seen if we recall that a large part of the the main efforts thus far have been concentrated on energy released in nuclear synthesis is carried away powerful pulsed discharges in deuterium at low by neutrons and cannot therefore be directly transpressure.

    The principal idea here is to obtain a formed into electric energy. In the initial phase of the pulsed discharge the plasma is pinched to the axis of the discharge tube.

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